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After a three-year string of scandals, Facebook finds itself staring down four separate antitrust investigations, a former co-founder who wants the company split apart and a front-runner presidential candidate who has made the breakup of the company a key part of her campaign.
It's a far cry from a few short years ago, when people viewed Facebook and its CEO Mark Zuckerberg as prime examples of tech innovation and an inspiration for other business and tech leaders.
Here's a look back at the events of the last three years that could force Zuckerberg to go to the mat to fight a breakup.
Nov. 10, 2016 — Zuckerberg rejects idea of Facebook's fake news problem
Following the 2016 U.S. presidential election, a number of journalists criticized Facebook for how it handled false and misleading news stories and propaganda in the run-up to the election.
In Zuckerberg's first public appearance after the election, interviewer David Kirkpatrick asked him about the issue. He dismissed it outright.
"Personally I think the idea that fake news on Facebook, which is a very small amount of the content, influenced the election in any way — I think is a pretty crazy idea," Zuckerberg said.
This was the moment when sentiment toward the company began to sour.
April 27, 2017 — Facebook confirms election interference
Facebook confirmed its critics' fears when it issued a case study of the 2016 election. Though the paper was vague in detail and made no reference to Russian interference, it confirmed that groups had attempted to use its social network to sway the outcome of the 2016 election. This reduced trust in Facebook and highlighted the company's outsize influence on its users.
March 17, 2018 — Cambridge Analytica
Facebook's fake news problem was a black eye for the company, but it was nothing compared to the Cambridge Analytica scandal that broke in March 2018.
The Guardian and the New York Times reported that political consulting firm Cambridge Analytica had improperly accessed the data of 50 million Facebook users, and had used that data to target voters on Facebook to get them to support Trump in the 2016 presidential campaign. The number was later revised to 87 million Facebook profiles.
Although the details were not that damning -- it's not clear whether Cambridge's tactics actually worked -- they bolstered the public impression that Facebook had undue influence over elections.
Facebook's public response made matters worse. The company tried to get ahead of the reports by publishing a Friday night blog post on March 16, saying it was suspending Cambridge Analytica for improperly accessing user data. After the reports went live on Saturday, the company remained silent for five days without addressing the public.
March 20, 2018 — FTC opens investigation
U.S. regulators wasted no time looking into how Facebook allowed Cambridge Analytica to harvest user data. The Federal Trade Commission launched an investigation into the matter days later, according to the Washington Post.
April 10, 2018 — Zuckerberg testifies
As a result of the Cambridge Analytica scandal, Zuckerberg was called to Washington to testify before lawmakers.
Members of Congress grilled him on several matters, but it was Sen. Lindsey Graham who asked Zuckerberg to name Facebook's competiton. Zuckerberg began to detail how Facebook competes in a number of areas with multitudes of apps.
Unsatisfied with the answer, Graham asked "You don't think you have a monopoly?"
"It certainly doesn't feel like that to me," Zuckerberg responded.
Dec. 5, 2018 — U.K. Parliament releases internal Facebook documents showing aggressive tactics
The U.K. Parliament published 250 pages of internal Facebook documents in December 2018 that provided a number of insights into the company's strategy against competitors throughout its history. The documents were obtained as part of a lawsuit against Facebook by Six4Three, a company that had developed software on Facebook and later alleged anti-competitive practices by the social network.
Among those documents was an exchange in which Zuckerberg personally instructed one of his employees to cut off the ability for users of Twitter's Vine social video app to connect it with Facebook as a way to easily find friends on the new service.
March 8, 2019 — Warren calls for Facebook breakup
Facebook was pulled into the middle of the 2020 U.S. presidential election when Democractic candidate Sen. Elizabeth Warren published a blog post calling for the breakup of several Big Tech companies on grounds of antitrust and unfair competition.
Specifically, Warren accused Facebook of using its acquisition of Instagram and WhatsApp to limit competition, and she said that if she were elected, she would appoint regulators to unwind those "anti-competitive mergers."
March 30, 2019 — Zuckerberg asks for regulation
With more politicians expressing concerns over Facebook's power, Zuckerberg tried to get ahead of calls for a breakup with an op-ed in the Washington Post where he admitted the tech industry needs more regulation, and asked for clear guidance.
"From what I've learned, I believe we need new regulation in four areas: harmful content, election integrity, privacy and data portability," he wrote, outlining specific ideas for each.
May 9, 2019 — Facebook co-founder Chris Hughes calls for breakup
Calls to break up the company gained another prominent proponent in May when Facebook Co-founder Chris Hughes published a lengthy New York Times opinion piece, saying Facebook now holds more power over speech than a private-sector entity should.
"The most problematic aspect of Facebook's power is Mark's unilateral control over speech," Hughes wrote. "There is no precedent for his ability to monitor, organize and even censor the conversations of two billion people."
June 3, 2019 — FTC opens antitrust probe
The FTC was the first agency to kick off an antitrust-focused investigation into Facebook, according to the Wall Street Journal. The agency, which was already looking at Facebook due to the Cambridge Analytica scandal, had Facebook in its investigative crosshairs, the report said.
June 26, 2019 — Zuckerberg argues against Facebook breakup
Zuckerberg directly addressed the growing calls for a Facebook breakup during a public appearance at the Aspen Ideas Festival, arguing that the company's size is what allows it to tackle problems like fake news.
"The question that I think we have to grapple with is that breaking up these companies wouldn't make any of those problems better," Zuckerberg said.
"The amount that we're investing in safety and security is greater than the whole revenue of our company was earlier this decade when we went public, so it just would not have been possible to do the things we're doing at a smaller scale."
July 24, 2019 — FTC fines Facebook $5 billion
The FTC announced Facebook had agreed to pay a record $5 billion penalty as a result of the agency's probe following the Cambridge Analytica scandal. The fine was the largest ever imposed on a company for violating consumer privacy, the FTC said in its announcement.
In addition to the fine, Facebook agreed to adopt a new privacy program that would require Zuckerberg and compliance officers to submit quarterly certifications to the FTC assuring the company is in compliance.
"Any false certification will subject them to individual civil and criminal penalties," the FTC said.
Sept. 6, 2019 — State attorneys general open antitrust probe
Eight state attorneys general announced they had begun investigating Facebook for antitrust reasons. The coalition included Colorado, Florida, Iowa, Nebraska, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Tennessee and Washington, D.C.
"We will use every investigative tool at our disposal to determine whether Facebook's actions may have endangered consumer data, reduced the quality of consumers' choices, or increased the price of advertising," investigation lead Letitia James, the New York attorney general, said in a statement.
Sept 19, 2019 — Zuckerberg goes to Washington
In a rare move, Zuckerberg pays a visit to Washington, D.C., where he has private meetings with President Trump and lawmakers, including some who have proposed regulation that could affect the company. It's quite a change from 2017, when he didn't even show up to the first congressional hearings about foreign powers using Facebook to try and influence the 2016 presidential election.
Sept. 25, 2019 — DOJ reportedly opens antitrust probe
Following the FTC and state attorneys general, the U.S. Justice Department opened an antitrust investigation on Facebook in October, according to a Reuters report.
Oct. 1, 2019 — In leaked recording, Zuckerberg says he'll "go to the mat" to fight breakup
Zuckerberg told Facebook employees that he expects Facebook will have a legal challenge if Warren is elected president, according to recordings of internal company meetings in July that were published by The Verge.
In the recordings, Zuckerberg said he bets Facebook would win the legal challenge, but he would not like a legal fight with the U.S. government.
"We care about our country and want to work with our government and do good things," Zuckerberg said. "But look, at the end of the day, if someone's going to try to threaten something that existential, you go to the mat and you fight."
Oct. 22, 2019 — State attorneys general probe expands
The coalition of state attorneys general investigating Facebook announced it had expanded to include a total of 47 states and U.S. territories.
"As we continue our investigation, we will use every investigative tool at our disposal to determine whether Facebook's actions stifled competition and put users at risk," James said in a statement.
Oct. 30, 2019 — Zuckerberg makes case against Instagram divestiture
Speaking with analysts during Facebook's third-quarter earnings report, Zuckerberg was asked about how the increased regulatory scrutiny could impact the company. Zuckerberg's answer focused on Facebook's 2012 $1 billion acquisition of Instagram, saying that the photo-sharing app would not be what it is today without Facebook's help.
"A lot of the antitrust questions that are out there that are going to be about our acquisition of Instagram, right?" he said. "There's going to be a lot of scrutiny of that acquisition in particular."
Nov. 6, 2019 — California discloses Facebook probe
The most notable absentee in the coalition of 47 state attorneys general probing Facebook was the company's home state of California.
That may be because the state had quietly opened its own investigation into the company in 2018.
California State Attorney General Xavier Becerra made the disclosure after the state filed court documents seeking the San Francisco County Superior Court to require Facebook to comply with its requests for additional documents related to the Cambridge Analytica scandal.
Becerra accused Facebook of dragging its feet by failing to comply with subpoenas, and said that the company had not searched emails of Zuckerberg and COO Sheryl Sandberg that might relate to its investigation.
Nov. 6, 2019 — NBC publishes trove of internal Facebook documents
NBC published a trove of 7,000 documents related to the Six4Three lawsuit against the social network.
The documents include 4,000 internal Facebook communications that discuss a number of topics, including how the company picked and choose which companies received preferential access to user data and which were kicked off altogether.
An employee described Zuckerberg as a "master of leverage" in one document. An employee in another document described the company's decision to give data access to companies based on how threatening they are to Facebook as "sort of unethical."
WATCH: Here's how to see which apps have access to your Facebook data — and cut them off

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In cities around the world, on-demand rides are just a screen touch away. Whether it's catching a Lyft in Los Angeles or Grab-ing it in Singapore, ridesharing apps have changed the car-hire landscape for good.
The original transport disrupter, Uber, operates in 65 countries and more than 700 cities around the globe. But its reach isn't all-encompassing. Here is a list of important apps to know when traveling away from home.
The right ridesharing app can save time and frustration later.
Hero Images | Hero Images | Getty Images


In north Asia, Uber's broad coverage offers riders options in Hong Kong, Japan, Korea and Taiwan, plus India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. Plus, it widely covers Australia and New Zealand. But in China and Southeast Asia, Uber's footprint is basically nil.
Didi: China's most prevalent ridesharing app works in English and Mandarin. Long-term expat and Beijing resident Liz Haenle said, "I choose Didi because I'm a foreigner, and it's the easiest one for me to use." She also says that because of traffic, bike sharing apps like Mobike are more popular than car booking apps. In addition to China, Didi services six cities in Australia.
Grab: Grab operates in eight countries — Singapore, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam and the Philippines — and in more than 500 cities and towns in the region. Beyond ridesharing, the company offers a cashless payment system called GrabPay and a meal delivery service called GrabFood.
Gojek: Starting as a call center tech company that connected riders to motorbikes in Indonesia, Gojek now operates in five countries in Southeast Asia, including Singapore, Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand and the Philippines. It also offers more than 20 services, most notably GoPay which expanded financial access to millions of unbanked people in Indonesia.
Gojek drivers waiting for passengers in Indonesia.
afif c. kusuma | iStock Editorial | Getty Images
"Gojek and Grab motorbike rides can be indispensable in Jakarta traffic," said Peter Thorin, an American living in Jakarta. "They can weave through backed-up traffic and get you to where you need to go with much more certainty you'll arrive on time. They can cut a trip in half."
Ola: Serving India, Ola lets customers order a variety of vehicles, from premium sedans to tuk-tuks, at a rate that's sometimes less expensive than Uber.


"For me, Uber has revolutionized getting around London at night," said Briton Selina Boyd. "It's more affordable and the convenience of being able to get (a car) in places where you wouldn't normally find a black cab very easily has been brilliant."
Uber is popular in London, but so is Gett.
martin-dm | E+ | Getty Images
Beyond Uber, travelers to Europe should also know about:
BlaBlaCar: This carpooling service in 18 European countries, plus Mexico and Brazil, allows just about anyone to offer a ride. Enter your desired destination, and the app provides a choice of vehicles; riders pick one and pay online. For safety, BlaBlaCar also offers ladies-only options.
Gett: Travelers to the U.K. should know this app, which operates in 25 major cities there, including London, Edinburgh, Manchester, Glasgow and Newcastle. It's also useful in Israel, Russia and parts of the United States.
Bolt: Operating in 150 cities across Europe, Africa, Mexico and Australia, Bolt aims to offer the lowest-price rides in its markets.

North America

Lyft: The second most downloaded ridesharing app in the U.S. after Uber, Lyft operates in more than 300 markets across the U.S. and Canada. The company also offers scooter and bike rental options.
Christina Mulvihill a busy executive and mom of two young children in the Washington, D.C. metro area, says, "Lyft is definitely more budget friendly. But, I like Uber for the family function that allows my childcare giver to order (a car) and then charge it to me." But she says, "For business travelers and visitors to the area, Lyft works really well."

South America

Cabify: Started in Spain in 2011, the company operates in 12 countries and more than 90 cities across Latin and South America.
Cabify operates in 12 countries across Latin and South America.
Courtesy of Cabify
Didi: The most widely-used ridesharing app in China, Didi is also prevalent in Brazil.


Bolt: This popular European app also provides services in Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda and South Africa.
Jrney: Exclusive to South Africa, Jrney offers both ridesharing and carpooling options.

Ridesharing app tips:

1. Download the app before your trip.
2. Set up automatic payments by credit card. Check if overseas credit cards are allowed; some apps still require a local card.
3. Book ahead to sidestep language barriers.
Singapore-based Matt Fry, who travels globally several times a month for business and leisure, said, "Apps are especially helpful in foreign countries where you don't speak the language. It's a lot easier to type in the location than to try to tell the taxi driver where you are going."
4. If a ridesharing app doesn't provide pre-booking services, local taxis may be a better option.

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A pedestrian walks past an electronic stock quotation board in Tokyo.
Kazuhiro Nogi | AFP | Getty Images
Asia Pacific markets saw losses by Monday afternoon, as shares in Hong Kong tumbled with tensions soaring in the city.
Chinese mainland markets fell: The Shanghai composite was down 1.22% and the Shenzhen composite declined 1.61%. The Shenzhen component index fell 1.56%.
In Hong Kong, the Hang Seng index was deep in negative territory, declining 2.10% as political turmoil in the city worsened. At least two protesters were said to be injured when local police opened fire on Monday at mass demonstrations. Over the weekend, three pro-democracy lawmakers were arrested.
Sectors across the board tumbled, including property developers, tech, and financial.
Japan's Nikkei 225 reversed early gains to trade down 0.21% while the Topix index was flat.
South Korea's Kospi fell 0.46% as major chipmaker SK Hynix slid 1.70%.
In Australia, the benchmark ASX 200 defied the general downward trend in the region and rose 0.57%.
MSCI's broadest index of Asia-Pacific shares outside Japan fell 0.91%.
On the earnings front, Singapore's DBS Bank reported a stronger-than-expected rise in its third-quarter net profit, which jumped 15% year-on-year to 1.63 billion Singapore dollars ($1.19 billion). Its third-quarter net interest income was up 8% to $2.46 billion Singapore dollars.
DBS shares in Singapore was down 0.15%.
Last Thursday, trade optimism rose after China's Commerce Ministry said that Beijing had agreed with Washington to lift existing trade tariffs between the two countries in phases.
Hopes of alleviating that trade fight, which has hampered the global growth outlook and created uncertainty for businesses, dampened when U.S. President Donald Trump said Friday he has not agreed to scrap tariffs on Chinese goods.
Both sides are working to sign what the White House has described as a "phase one" trade deal.
"US-China trade tensions will continue to drive currencies this week," currency strategists at the Commonwealth Bank of Australia wrote in a morning note. They said the dollar could "edge higher this week," driven by trade developments and it could potentially diminish expectations for further rate cuts from the U.S. Federal Reserve.
Citi analysts said in a note that they expect at most a "rollback of the September tariffs only along with a suspension of the December tariffs contingent on achieving a Phase 1 deal." The next tariff deadline is Dec. 15.
"We expect a high degree of uncertainty to remain even if a tariff rollback is achieved," the analysts wrote, explaining that investment and financial frictions between the world's two largest economies are likely to continue.

Currencies and oil

The dollar traded at 98.336 on Monday morning, flat against a basket of its peers.
Elsewhere, the Japanese yen changed hands at 109.02 per dollar, strengthening from an earlier low of 109.25. The Australian dollar traded at $0.6852, declining from around $0.6900 from the previous week.
Oil prices declined Monday morning during Asian trading hours. U.S. crude futures fell 0.86% to $56.75 per barrel while global benchmark Brent was down 0.9% to $61.95.

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It's the great rotation.
Investors have been pulling away from growth and defensive stocks — plays that tend to perform better during economic slowdowns — and moving into value names as market conditions improve and optimism starts to creep back into the investing community.
That could make for a rally to even higher highs for the major averages, says Avalon Investment & Advisory's Bill Stone, who in January and February said the S&P 500 would reach new highs by year-end, a call that very much came to fruition.
The Dow Jones Industrial Average, S&P 500 and Nasdaq Composite all closed at records Friday, with the S&P logging its fifth straight week of gains.
And, if you ask Stone, who is chief investment officer and managing director at Avalon, the rotation out of growth and into value is a major catalyst for these moves — and the ones to come.
"Value stocks had really been left in the dust. That rotation has kicked in. We've gotten much more of the cyclical names, the value names, acting better. I think that can help take us to new highs," he said Friday on CNBC's "Trading Nation."
As for the things that kept stocks at bay for much of this year, namely worse-than-expected economic data, recession fears and the U.S.-China trade dispute, Stone maintained a fairly positive outlook.
On the economy, Stone, who "doesn't see a recession" coming anytime soon, hoped to see more data that support the idea that "the U.S. and globally economy have kind of stabilized and hopefully put in a bottom here," he said.
"That certainly helps," the investment chief said. "And ... connected to that is clearly the trade dispute. ... Sometimes, we get headlines that maybe call some things into question, but, at the end, I think we are kind of moving toward at least a détente. And, frankly, détente's enough."
The spike in bond yields this week, while stark, also fed into Stone's bull case.
"We're right in that sweet spot" of just under 2% on the 10-year U.S. Treasury yield, Stone said. "Right now, [yields are] going up for a good reason, which is the belief that the global economy and the U.S. economy are getting a bit better. I think that's really the nice part. I think the danger is if they go up for some other reason."
The worst-case scenario is unlikely to play out, however, given the U.S. Federal Reserve's indication following its latest interest rate cut that it will pause its policy moves for the time being, Stone said.
So far, he sees the friendly Fed and the rally to records as drivers keeping the market in a good place, which could extend into next year barring some newfound exuberance among buyers.
"It's hard to say, with fund flows and everything else still being net-negative overall for the year, that people have been rushing in to buy a lot of stocks, so I don't get too worried about things being too carried away," Stone said.
As such, even if Wall Street estimates for 10% year-over-year earnings growth in 2020 don't pan out, Stone could still see stocks climbing higher on the back of mid-single-digit earnings gains.
"Even if you can book some sort of a mid-single-digit number out of stocks next year, that's still an attractive number versus what you'd ever earn out of bonds at the moment," he said.
In that environment, Stone would take part in the flight to value, he said.
"I still like the value side of things," the investor said. "Obviously, it'll wobble and get hit whenever you get some sort of worries about the economy popping up, but I think if you believe, like we do, that we're going to continue to see some better news out of the economy, I do think it's the place to be because they are still relatively cheap."
All in all, "I think people will continue to look for bargains there," Stone said. And value? "That's a good place to hunt."

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Disney shares jumped Friday as excitement around the media giant's streaming service overshadowed a sharp profit decline for the previous quarter.
The company posted Thursday an adjusted profit of $1.07 per share. That's down 28% from $1.48 per share in the year-earlier period. Disney's earnings did, however, top a Refinitiv estimate of 95 cents a share.
Still, Wall Street analysts glossed over the profit decline as Disney gets set to take on streaming giants such as Netflix at their own game. So far, analysts like Disney's chances in the streaming wars as it is expected to gobble up subscribers for the $6.99-per-month service, which will be launched Tuesday.
"The market is sensing big things are brewing in the quarters ahead," Michael Nathanson, founding partner at MoffettNathanson, said in a note. "As we have vividly seen at Netflix, when moving in the right direction, momentum in subscriber growth makes those metrics investors' sole focus."
Nathanson has a price target on Disney shares of $150, which represents a 12.8% upside from Thursday's close of $132.96. Disney shares closed 3.8% higher at $137.96.
Disney+ will launch next week with hundreds of classic Disney movies, thousands of TV episodes and content that's exclusive to the platform, including "The Mandalorian," a series set in the "Star Wars" universe.
This content, coupled with recently announced distribution deals with Verizon and Amazon, has led to high subscriber expectations from Nathanson. The analyst expects Disney+ to have about 8 million subscribers around the world by year-end and 18 million by the time the company's fiscal year 2020 ends.
Nathanson is not the only one expecting strong growth from Disney+. Steven Cahall, an analyst at Wells Fargo Securities, also expects Disney+ to end the calendar year with 8 million subscribers. He also thinks 21 million people will have signed up for the streaming service by the end of Disney's fiscal year 2020. Doug Creutz, an analyst at Cowen, expects Disney+ to obtain more than 30 million subscribers by the end of fiscal 2021.
Goldman Sachs analyst Drew Borst also thinks Disney's "Star Wars" content will help build up Disney+'s subscriber base.
"To demonstrate the scale of the Star Wars fan base, consider that the first two movies in the current Skywalker trilogy — The Force Awakens (2015) and The Last Jedi (2017) — averaged 27 million in domestic movie ticket sales on the opening weekend alone. Assuming those individuals equate to 9 million unique households (i.e., 2.5 individuals/household national average), that represents a meaningful subscriber opportunity for Disney+," Borst said.
Disney first unveiled its streaming service on April 11. Since then, the stock is up more than 13% and hit a record high in late July.
"DIS's rerating indicates investors think the strategy will work," said Wells Fargo's Cahall in a note. "We agree, and DIS with DTC at scale is extremely profitable due to an owned library, dedicated fan base of recurring viewers, global brand and dominance in the kids/family genre."
— CNBC's Michael Bloom contributed to this report.
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